Yes, but my (and a whole lot of operators') definition of "proven" includes
financial. For that reason we won't see APS in scores of tram cities across
Europe and around the world (including Melbourne). Few others except the
well-subsidised French can afford to run it. When it has the same costs as
OHW it will be successful.
In 1896 and again in 1905, a locally-invented system almost identical to
APS (powered only when a tram was directly above) was trialled in Prague
and recommended for system-wide adoption but I gather that the cost factor
won in the end. That was an early lesson.
On Thursday, 10 January 2019 11:30:48 UTC+11, Matthew Geier wrote:
> APS has had over 10 years of 'proven' use and is on it's 3rd 'version'.
> It might be proprietary and expensive, but it is a proven 'solution'.
> For all the 'faults' of APS, you can't say it isn't a proven system.
> Bordeaux never followed through with the threat to make Alstom remove it
> and put up wires - Alstom eventually got it to work more or less
> properly and the use of the method has increased over time.